ENERGY AND MATTER IN FIVE DIMENSIONS

A Holistic Theory of Science

by Walter Last

SUMMARY

A five-dimensional vortex-field Theory of Everything is presented, which allows a logical interpretation of a wide range of key aspects of particle physics and astrophysics derived from a simple set of assumptions. This is demonstrated with a detailed interpretation of sunspot activity.

Conclusions, which in time may be tested to verify this model, include predictions about the existence and nature of multiple magnetic fields on Jupiter and Saturn; alternative explanations of magnetism, of the earth’s magnetic field and of gravitation; an alternative or additional source of energy production within stars, galactic centers and quasars based on matter-antimatter reactions, and generally an equal amount of matter and antimatter in our galaxy and possibly within each star and solar system.

Mainstream physics focuses on mathematical interpretations rather than logical understanding and does not provide an intelligible unified theory of the nature of matter and energy. To remedy this, various ether (or aether) and vortex theories have been proposed from time to time. Expanding on these, the following 'Pulson Theory' will show that we can gain a full understanding of the nature of energy and matter within the framework of a five-dimensional space-time.

THE NATURE OF THE QUANTUM FIELD

The most basic energy phenomenon underlying matter is postulated to be a vortex. Accordingly, the quantum field consists of vortices. The quantum field stores energy as vortex energy. These vortices oscillate at very high frequencies between a centripetal and a centrifugal form as illustrated in Fig. 1. Because of their intrinsically pulsating nature we may call them 'pulsons'. They may correspond to some aspects of string theories, tornado-like vortex funnels may be seen as strings.

During its centripetal manifestation phase a pulson condenses the field consisting of even smaller pulsons or 'micro-pulsons’, and with this creates a 'high pressure field` or short 'HP field` within the quantum field. Conversely, the centrifugal vortex creates a 'low pressure or 'LP field’. However, Fig 1 is a two-dimensional abstraction of a multi-dimensional process. In 3-D we may see an inflow at one end and an outflow at the other end of a pulson vortex in the form of a tube.

Obvious examples of such vortex flows can be seen in the high and low pressure areas of our atmosphere. In an atmospheric high we see a spiral inflow of air at the top and an outflow at the bottom, and vice versa with low-pressure areas. However, the causes of these highs and lows are postulated to be not physical but rather higher-dimensional vortices, and pressures are opposite at the higher-dimensional level to those at the physical level. For instance the lower the air pressure falls in an atmospheric low, most extreme in a tornado, the stronger is the higher-dimensional energy compacted, and this leads to bizarre phenomena inside tornadoes that cannot be understood with conventional physics.   .

Pulson vortices are funnel-shaped, similar to a tornado, and compress the field more strongly at the small openings as compared to their wide ends. An attraction exists between two unlike pulson fields that is strongest at their small openings. This causes vortices to meet and attach to each other in the form of an hourglass. In this position suitable pulsons attract each other with their unlike or oppositely charged fields, and repulse each other with their like or same-directional spins.

Such 'twin-pulsons’ may rapidly form and disintegrate as the virtual particles of the quantum field. The lifetime of a virtual particle depends on the manifestation-demanifestation frequency of its two pulsons. The frequencies of pulsons that meet by chance will not be identical, and in the demanifested state that causes them to separate and the virtual particle disappears.

However, under certain conditions, such as those involving energy changes within an atom, matching pairs of pulsons come into being, which then remain together as photons. The electrical properties of photons are derived from their oscillating HP and LP fields while magnetic properties, in a wider sense, are related to the characteristics - spin and type - of their vortices. Therefore, in a wider sense we may say the two parts of a photon are held together in a balance between their electric attractions and their magnetic repulsions.

Basically a photon is a twin-pulson manifesting as a string, tube or cable. It propagates through the quantum field (or ether) by sucking in micro-pulsons at the front of the tube and expelling them at the end. The observed frequency of a photon is a function of its pulsation rate. In a strongly polarized field, both photon vortices may be separated and their fields stabilized in the manifested condition as electron and positron. Conversely, when an electron and a positron meet, their fields neutralize each other while their vortices combine to form a twin-pulson or photon.

Magnetic Cables

In 3-D we mostly encounter twin-pulsons as magnetic or electromagnetic strings or cables. Because pulson vortices are higher-dimensional phenomena, their real nature is usually hidden from our view, and we become aware of them only through secondary effects, such as electromagnetic phenomena. An example of this difficulty is that only in 2001 has the evidence been found that sunspots are driven by planet-sized vortices.

Space shuttle and follow-up experiments to better understand the birth of the solar system confirm this concept of tornado-like pulsons. It was expected that dust clouds would aggregate into bigger and bigger balls eventually to form planets. Instead they formed fluffy rotating tubes or strings as would be expected of pulson vortices with long, tube-like funnels. This perception is further enhanced by tubes only reacting with each other end to end as pulsons would. However, according to the Pulson Theory any such aggregation would not lead to the formation of planets.

Recent simulations at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics show dust grains becoming negatively charged by absorbing electrons from plasma and then this charged 'nucleus' attracts positive ions, which form a shell around it (compare Fig. 5). In these cases the negatively charged dust particles are the micro-pulsons that stabilize the pulsons and provide the visible shape for the dust aggregations. Some experiments have also generated cables as spiral structures and sometimes even formed double helixes which, like DNA, can store information. It is also interesting that these experimental spiral cables have two stable states, one with a large diameter and the other with a small one, just like pulsons.

 It is assumed that the basic vortex cables are not visible at the physical level. But because they have a polarity charge, they will attract oppositely charged micro-particles, say electrons attached to dust particles, and that causes them to became visible. These charged particles tend to become linked up in chains, and because of being inside a rotating vortex funnel, they appear as a helix. Two funnels being attracted to each other by opposite internal energy flows can wind around each other as a double helix. 

Another recently discovered example is the observation of tube-like interstellar clouds surrounded by spiraling magnetic fields. Galaxies can commonly be seen to have tube or cone-like matter or anti-matter projections coming out of their cores perpendicular to their plane of rotation. Very spectacular is the recently discovered “double helix” at the center of our galaxy - two intertwining tubes wrapped around each other as in a DNA molecule, in all 80 light years in length. Even our galactic center shows a tube, described as a stellar bar, about 27,000 light years in length. When knowing what to look for we can see vortices or pulsons and polarity fields everywhere. We may assume that the ends of this bar will have opposite polarities.

Other Pulson Phenomena

So far we have seen that pulsons may become stabilized as twin-pulsons forming spiral cables with magnetic properties, and these cables may combine to form a double helix. In addition it may also be possible for two like pulsons to come together. In this case they would be attracted by their unlike spins but repulsed by their like field polarities. The combinations of unlike fields are more stable, and are the basis of materializations, while like-field twin-pulsons would be unstable and produce strong energetic effects.

Pulsons manifesting in our physical reality initially are strongly polarized (‘uncompensated’) and tend to be associated with strong electromagnetic effects. They may be formed by the sun, and impact our ionosphere as ‘atmospheric holes’, or they may emerge from the earth as ‘natural self-luminous formations’ (NSLFs) or ‘radar angels’.

They may also cause phenomena such as tornados, water spouts, dust devils, clear air turbulence, geological vortices such as the Oregon Vortex, ‘ball lightning’, and ‘sprites, elves and jets’ over thunderstorms. Other descriptions for pulsons are ‘vacuum domains’, ‘rotating tubes’ or ‘strings’, or ‘spherical torus of energy’.

Most of these pulson phenomena are due to tornado-like centripetal vortices. The reason for this may be that these have a much higher intensity and are therefore easier to spot than lower-intensity centrifugal vortices. Even in our weather patterns it is much easier to notice a cyclone or tornado than an atmospheric high pressure area.

SPACE-DENSITY - THE ADDITIONAL DIMENSION

In order to understand the manifestation of matter with this model we need to introduce an additional space dimension, which we may call 'space-density`. Space density is a function of the field compression within a vortex. It is postulated that space-density can vary to an unlimited degree, ranging from the micro-pulsons of the quantum field to galactic and super-galactic pulsons.

Only pulsons with overlapping space-densities within their fields can directly contact each other, such as sub-atomic particles. However, all fields within the same four-dimensional space-time interpenetrate each other.

Fields that do not overlap in space-density do not influence each other except if such fields have uncompensated polarities. To illustrate this point, we may assume that a pulson is manifested as LP field. This creates a polarity effect in adjacent levels of space-density. In the direction of higher space-density it will attract and bind micro-pulsons that are manifested as HP fields.

In the direction of lower space-density the LP field will be attracted and bound by any 'super-HP field` within the same four-dimensional space-time. This bond will be the stronger, the closer together such unlike fields are in the dimension of space-density, and also the more uncompensated polarity exists within each field.

Various other theories and mathematical models assume a much larger number of additional dimensions. However, it is suggested that these may not actually be additional dimensions, but rather a hierarchy of levels within the dimension of space-density.

Recently David Thomson and Jim Bourassa of the Quantum AetherDynamics Institute (QADI) released a 5-dimensional Aether Physics Model, which has much in common with the 5-dimensional pulson theory presented here. While the QADI focuses mainly on the mathematical presentation of their model, which includes a Unified Force theory, the following discussion aims to provide an all-inclusive model of Everything that can be rationally understood without any mathematics. The QADI theory ‘A New Foundation for Physics’ is available at www.16pi2.com/files/NewFoundationPhysics.pdf.

Deformation

Within a polar super-field a bound unlike field becomes deformed: it expands. However, any field of like polarity will contract. The deformations of a twin-pulson within a super-LP field are shown in Fig. 2. Its HP field will expand while its LP field contracts. Their increased polarity pulls them closer together, and their fields merge.

They neutralize each other to the degree that they overlap with equal intensity. However, there will be a surplus LP field at the center surrounded by a weaker but larger HP field forming the shell. Both are separated by a middle-field of zero polarity. The attraction between these separated fields is balanced by the deformation of their fields caused by the super LP field.

Internally these fields are stabilized by accumulating micro-fields of opposite or unlike polarity. Generally speaking, a field is deformed within an uncompensated super-field and it immediately stabilizes itself by binding unlike micro-fields, while micro-fields of like polarity tend to be expelled, see Fig. 3. The action of forces within the same and across adjacent space-densities is illustrated in Fig. 4.

MATERIALIZATION

The process of materialization is designed to creatively harness the powerful forces within polarized pulsons. The structure of a deformed twin-pulson, compensated internally by unlike micro-fields, is a state of pre-materialization. This, for instance is the condition just before the birth of a star. Stars cannot be born outside of a polarized super-field such as that of a galaxy.

Generally, we may say that in pre-materialization a twin-pulson is deformed in such a way that it becomes manifested as a single field with a core of the same polarity as its super-field and a shell of opposite polarity. Between core and shell is a neutral zone, the middle-field.

Both polar fields become stabilized by binding unlike micro-fields, starting at levels of adjacent higher space-density, and proceeding to levels of increasingly higher space-density until their polarities are more or less compensated. The combined charges of the micro-fields in core and shell form opposite potentials at different space-densities resembling charged electric capacitors. For stellar bodies, such as our planet, this means that the core has the opposite electric charge as the shell but the same charge as the surrounding super-field.

For the micro-fields of the highest space-density, those of atomic particles, the binding force of the core or shell of a stellar body is least effective, and they will increasingly cross the middle-field to become united with micro-fields of the opposite polarity.

In addition new pulsons and micro-pulsons continue to be created, and these will also be attracted by their opposites. If two unlike pulson fields meet in the middle-field of a stellar body, they become non-deformed twin-pulsons or photons. In the case of stars and young planets this is suggested as an additional or alternative method of energy production.

Returning to the process of materialization: If a pulson-field crosses the middle-field and moves into the super-field of like polarity, it immediately unites with one of its oppositely charged counterpart to form a twin-pulson. Because it is now exposed to the strong polarity of a young super-field, it becomes deformed as shown in Fig. 2, pre-materializes and then materializes as in Fig. 5.

In this way materialization starts at the level of highest space-density, in the case of stellar bodies that is the level of subatomic particles. Gradually materialization proceeds to levels of increasingly lower space-densities, such as those of atomic fields and molecular fields of increasing complexity. Therefore, materialization proceeds in the opposite direction to pre-materialization.

From this basic pattern we may deduce that stellar bodies start materializing on both sides adjacent to the middle-field, and then proceeding further outwards and inwards. The speed of materialization may rhythmically change with the major pulsations of the stellar twin-vortices. Overall observations will show the stellar body growing in size and becoming heavier. This mechanism provides an explanation for the expanding Earth theory; it is also visibly supported by the appearance of the Jupiter moon Ganymede.

Birth of a Galaxy

This theory gives an alternative explanation for the common spiral shape of galaxies. Both galactic twin vortices spin their common field in the same direction. One vortex is centripetal, the other centrifugal, and this creates field turbulence in the form of spiral streamers. Photographs of young galaxies may show a distinct separation between their upper and lower halves as each half is rotated by a different vortex.

Furthermore, smaller and denser vortices are spawned from this turbulence between the galactic twin pulsons, and these become the twin-pulsons of stars. This may be seen as a general principle in that smaller and denser pulsons are created by a super-twin-pulson, and these are then used to compensate its polarities and eventually materialize its fields.

Therefore, this model attributes the wheel-like rotation of galaxies to the spinning (etheric) fields of galactic twin-vortices rather than to missing dark matter as current theories suggest. Alternatively, we may say that dark matter is a galactic pulson field. This model also explains why galaxies, stellar bodies and particles all have a spin (except for 'dead' stellar bodies that no longer have a twin-pulson).

Another consequence of this theory is the conclusion that galaxies, quasars and possibly other stellar bodies consist of equal parts of matter and antimatter, each separated from the other by an 'empty' or non-materialized middle-field. Matter in the galactic center is compacted due to the strong polarity of the core of the galactic super-field.

One possible five-dimensional interpretation of the birth of a galaxy may be described as follows. Within a super-galactic high-pressure field a galactic twin-pulson will manifest with a high-pressure core and a low-pressure shell. Materialization starts in such a way that matter particles form in the galactic shell and anti-particles in the galactic core. With this, the first signs of a manifesting galaxy would be a huge hydrogen cloud slowly rotating within a magnetic field.

Eventually stellar pulsons are created within the turbulence of the galactic twin-vortices. These move immediately into the galactic field of opposite polarity. Within areas of higher polarity these remain initially unpaired, while in the weaker polarity near the galactic middle-field stellar twin pulsons may form and start materializing.

Within stellar HP fields of the galactic shell most hydrogen becomes ionized, and protons tend to be expelled into the galactic shell. This then gives the appearance of electron clouds embedded within vast hydrogen and proton clouds. The opposite processes take place in the galactic core.

Stellar fields may cross the galactic middle-field, and cause violent matter-antimatter reactions when combining with their counterpart, either in the middle-field or in the opposite galactic field. This may be a main energy source of quasars, and a cause of unidentified gamma ray sources.

Furthermore, stellar vortices are still being periodically created between the galactic super-vortices. At some stage the polarities of the galactic super-fields will have been compensated by stellar pulsons of opposite polarity. Now new stellar pulsons will move into the galactic field of like polarity to combine with a stellar pulson of opposite polarity.

 With this a stellar twin-pulson forms, and the process of materialization can begin. Stellar HP shells should continue to have a surplus of negative particles with a surplus of positive charges in LP cores. In this more conventional model the core as well as the shell of stars within the shell of our galaxy consists of matter, while those in the galactic center consist of antimatter.

As an alternative possibility of the birth of a galaxy, matter and antimatter particles may only form within strongly polarized stellar fields and not already in the galactic fields. In this case large clouds of hydrogen and anti-hydrogen would not precede the formation of a galaxy but only the birth of stars, and the early galactic development would be much less violent. However, in this case all stars in the shell of our galaxy would have a matter shell and an antimatter core. The opposite matter-antimatter distribution would exist within the core of our galaxy.

This means that in this case the internal energy production of all stars is mainly due to matter-antimatter reactions within their middle-fields. Gamma radiation due to matter-antimatter reactions near the middle-field of a star can be expected to create cascades of less energetic particles and radiation while traveling through its shell. With this, also highly energetic events at the surface of our sun are likely to originate near its middle-field.

Furthermore, violent events such as supernovae are then due to the matter shell of a dying star falling into its antimatter core due to the premature departure of its twin-pulson.

Therefore, galaxies may basically create the atoms out of which their stars are formed. Stars materialize from the first level of galactic twin-pulsons. According to the Pulson Theory, the universe consists of equal amounts of matter and antimatter, and the more radical version allows also stars and comets to have antimatter in their core.

In the galactic center stars and matter are compacted due to the strong polarity of the core of the galactic super-field. On an astronomical scale this is the same type of force as the so-called strong force of atomic particles that holds the nucleons tightly packed in the atomic nucleus, just on a much lower level of space density. In the galactic center a relatively small area has been spotted with a million stars tightly packed into it. Energetically this would be the same structure as a nucleon (proton or neutron) within an atomic nucleus.

There are massive clouds of dense gas circling the center. Anywhere else in the galaxy these would be forming stars but in the galactic centre it is different. These clouds do not form stars until a certain threshold is reached and then gigantic clusters of stars are formed all at once.

My interpretation of this is that the matter in each cloud is compacted by a super-pulson creating a super-field or group-field. At a certain stage in the manifestation phase of the super-pulson the materialization process begins with the simultaneous appearance of many stars. These galactic nucleons should continue expanding for some time.

Galaxies also have the equivalent of electrons or planets. These are the globular clusters, each containing from ten thousand to one million stars within a relatively small space. Most globular clusters move around the galactic center in highly excentric elliptical orbits that take them far outside the Milky Way. Our galaxy has 180 to 200 globular clusters; most other galaxies have globular clusters as well, some up to several thousand. If we could make same-size models of atoms, solar systems and galaxies they would all look alike. 

The same principles that apply to a galaxy also apply to the Universe as a whole. It starts with the formation and ends with the dissolution of its primary twin-pulson. It can be expected to move in an endless series of manifestation and demanifestation cycles. There may, of course, be an infinite number of universes.

Comparing Pulson Theory and Orthodox Theories

This model shows a main difference between the Pulson Theory and orthodox theories of evolution and cosmology. Expressed satirically orthodox cosmology in essence states that in the beginning there was Nothing. Then Nothing exploded in a Big Bang and that created Everything. Reacting to fundamental laws, simple ingredients combined by chance to form a highly complex universe.

The Pulson Theory, on the other hand, assumes instead that our physical universe precipitated from higher dimensional planes of existence. Its evolution is being guided by pre-existing fields in a wide range of dimensional levels. These higher-dimensional fields with lower space-density counteract the Second Law of Thermodynamics and lead to increasingly complex structures. The Second Law of Thermodynamics says in effect, that if a system undergoes spontaneous change, it moves from order to disorder.

PHYSICAL PHENOMENA

Magnetism

Cosmic and stellar magnetic fields are postulated to be due to the spin of vast vortices that bind and circulate clouds of electrons. There are vast magnetic fields all over the universe, and astrophysicists are at a loss for an explanation. According to this theory it means that there are vast super-galactic pulsons everywhere. Also the magnetic field of our planet should ultimately be due to the two planetary vortices. Magnetic poles may be located at the densest parts of these vortices.

This lets us understand the shifts and reversals of our earth magnetic poles primarily as the oscillations of pulson vortices, which may in a secondary action cause shifts and reversals in the flow of magma, see also Fig. 6. The deviation of the magnetic axis of our planet from its rotation axis may be due to the interaction of the planetary vortices with those of the solar system or with internal energy structures.

A confirmation of the vortex nature of magnetism may be found in ‘Magnetism and its Effect on the Living System’ by A. R. Davies & W. C. Rawls (Acres, Kansas City). They claim that with the help of a cathode ray oscilloscope the energy emitted from the pole of a magnet can be photographed to show rotating small cables rather than lines of force as generally assumed.

These cables correspond to the tubes or elongated snouts of tornado-like pulson vortices. The right-hand spin direction of cables emitted from the N-pole is opposite to the left-hand spin of the S-pole cables. It is proposed that sunspots are produced by a similar effect.

The spin of our planet, as of all stellar bodies and particles, is due to its twin-pulsons. Because of its inertia, a planet can continue spinning for a while out of alignment with the magnetic axis. The non-manifested part of a pulson with its characteristic pulsation frequency may be behind the internal clock found in living organisms, the electromagnetic oscillations of atoms or crystals, the energy pulsations of stellar bodies, the oscillations of the periphery of our sun, sunspot cycles and magnetic pole reversals, depending on the frequency and space-density of the phenomenon.

On a longer scale the major manifestation-demanifestation cycle of a twin-pulson is also the life-death cycle of a body. The more materialized and older a body becomes, the more does the polarity of its field diminish, and the twin-vortices begin to lose control of the spin, which will slow and eventually stop.

Without sufficient polarity to keep attached to the body, the twin-vortices will separate and leave behind a dead body. For a stellar body this does not only mean loss of spin, but also of stellar magnetism, pulsations and internal energy production. While all stellar bodies may have dematerialized, hollow or ‘soft’ spaces in their middle fields, these may be especially pronounced in dead stellar bodies, such as our moon or Phobos.

Jupiter Moons

Atoms with several electron shells may consist of several atomic fields of decreasing space-density superimposed on each other. The same applies to large planets with several distinct groups of moons. Jupiter, for instance, has 3 groups of moons. From this we may deduce that in addition to the central planetary field, there are 3 additional fields, and in all 8 magnetic poles. These poles should be more or less perpendicular to the average inclination of each group. The central magnetic field is denser and therefore much stronger than additional fields, and will flip these over until its polarity is nearly compensated.

This means the poles of the second field with the first group of moons will match the poles of the first or central planetary field but with reversed polarity. The third field is still partially attracted by the central field but is also repulsed by the second field with like polarity. This causes it to become strongly inclined with an average inclination of its moons of 28 degrees.

The second field attracts and flips the fourth and outermost field over to approximately match the opposite poles of the second field, although it has now the same polarity as the central field. This arrangement causes the outermost moons to have retrograde rotation. That this arrangement is no coincidence but follows recognizable rules can be seen from Saturn, which shows the same structure with its 3 groups of moons. Similar considerations apply to other genuine lunar systems.

However, the older a stellar body becomes, the more does its polarity decline, and the less will it be influenced by either its own stellar vortices or by the polarity of the planetary or lunar field. Therefore, older planets or moons may spin with large deviations from their magnetic axis, and their orbits will be determined more and more by gravitational rather than by polarity forces.

The reason why astrophysics has so far overlooked the existence of polarity forces on a stellar scale is its preoccupation with fully materialized bodies and low or non-existent polarity. In order to study stellar polarities, efforts need to be focused on bodies in the earliest stages of materialization.

Sunspots

The value of this theory in explaining complicated processes may be demonstrated by interpreting sunspot activity. Sunspots have a periodicity of about 11 years. They appear in groups and drift with the general rotation of the photosphere. A group consists of one or several leading and following spots.

The leading spots are larger, and they live longer. The leading spot of a pair has the opposite magnetic polarity as its following partner. In addition, the polarity distribution is opposite in the northern solar hemisphere as compared to the Southern Hemisphere. With each new 11-year period the spots change polarities between both hemispheres.

The first spots of a new period appear in higher latitudes between 30 and 35° north and south, while the last spots appear at about 7°. The spin direction of sunspots can be determined in the chromosphere. During successive periods sunspots show no changes in their spin directions. Just as low pressure systems on our planet, all sunspots spin against the clock in the Northern Hemisphere and opposite in the Southern Hemisphere.

Conventional astrophysics is unable to explain this sunspot behavior but it is understandable as a direct consequence of this theory. The 11-year sunspot cycle corresponds to the manifestation-demanifestation pulsation of the solar vortices. The turbulence between the HP and the LP vortex during the manifestation phase creates daughter vortices; their fields then appear as sunspots.

The distance between both solar vortices is greatest at the start, and smallest at the end of each manifestation period. This accounts for the successively lower latitudes of sunspot manifestation during each cycle. Each solar field binds sunspots of opposite polarity and takes them along with its own rotation.

 These are the larger and leading spots. These established sunspots attract sunspots of opposite polarity. In a solar field with like polarity, these additional sunspot vortices are compressed, and therefore look smaller. However, they now spin in the same direction as leading spots, and this keeps them apart.

When reaching the equator at the end of their manifestation phase, the solar fields will very rapidly demanifest, and the solar vortices immediately begin manifesting with the opposite polarity. With this, also all new sunspots change polarity. Because the solar vortices do not change their spin directions, also sunspots remain with the same spin in each hemisphere during subsequent cycles.

Other sunspot features are extensive but irregular areas of increased luminosity surrounding the darker sunspot groups. These Faculae appear hours before the first sunspots and remain up to weeks afterwards. An alternative explanation for this effect may be the expulsion of particles of like polarity from the field of a sunspot. HP sunspots will bind electrons and expel protons, and vice versa for the LP sunspot.

According to the law of mass action this will lead to the increased disintegration of hydrogen atoms into protons and electrons. The energy requirement for this split lowers the temperature within the sunspot and causes its darker appearance. The increased particle concentration surrounding sunspot groups leads to an acceleration of hydrogen formation. This reaction releases energy, which causes the raised temperature and increased luminosity of the Faculae.

Gravitation

Vortex energy is postulated to be the main energy of the universe. In the space between existing twin-vortices, daughter vortices of higher space-densities are generated. This process takes place all the time at all levels, and creates a continual supply of new pulsons of all sizes and space-densities

The turbulence between two twin-vortices on which this process is based represents a continual energy drain on a twin-pulson. It has to replenish its energy by attracting micro-pulsons from the outside. These will become neutralized by already bound unlike micro-pulsons, and their combined energy can then be transferred to the energy pool of the twin-pulson.

Applied to the force of gravitation, this means that there is a continual inflow of pulsons (tachyons) and micro-pulsons into matter. This creates a lower pulson concentration between two stellar objects, or between an object and the surface of the planet, allowing the higher pulson pressure from the outside to push the objects closer together or towards the surface of the planet. This energy flow is at the quantum level or what used to be called the etheric level.

According to still disputed measurements of Chinese scientists there is a slight drop in the gravity level on earth during a total solar eclipse as the moon "shields" the gravitational pull between earth and sun. This pulson model predicts that this effect is real, and shows that the conventional theory of gravitation is wrong. If moon and sun are side-by-side then the etheric flow towards these bodies is increased leading to a higher gravitational pull as seen by higher tides. However, during a total eclipse this flow is temporarily diminished due to the shielding by the moon, and the concentration of etheric energy near earth increases. This has an antigravity effect not only on gravimeters but also on pendulums as frequently reported.

We can also more generally predict that an antigravity effect will result from raising the etheric pulson concentration between an object and the surface of the planet. This may be possible with the help of suitably arranged electric charges or magnetic poles on rotating disks.

The Pulson Theory sees the coming into existence of the material universe as a condensation from an adjoining level of lesser space-density, possibly more like the crystallization of an under-cooled liquid rather than an explosion. It also allows for the continuing creation and dissolution of galaxies and matter.

Atoms and Particles

The polarity distribution of a hydrogen atom and an anti-hydrogen atom are shown in Fig. 7. Larger atoms with several electron shells have several atomic fields superimposed on each other, each additional shell on the adjacent level of decreasing space-density. With each additional field the core LP field becomes more compressed and, with this, more strongly polarized.

This allows the core to bind more protons, but it also increases the pressure on the core LP fields of the bound neutrons. When the deformation of a neutron at the nuclear center becomes too strong, part of its LP field is expelled as an electron. This creates a surplus polarity in its HP shell and makes it a proton.

Because the electron has the same polarity as the core of the atomic field, it is forcefully ejected as beta radiation. At the atomic density level it balances its polarity by binding and surrounding itself with an equivalent part of the atomic HP field. Conversely, should a proton leave an atomic field, it remains surrounded with part of the atomic LP core.

In this way proton and electron can readily reunite to form a hydrogen atom. As electrons are basically polarized etheric fields, they may be imaged as electron clouds. The neutrino is assumed to be a small non-materialized twin-pulson at the level of the atomic field as compared to a photon, which is at the density level of atomic particles.

Theoretical physicists have tried, so far unsuccessfully, to develop a 'Unified Field Theory' or 'Theory of Everything' that combines all four of the known physical forces. The relationship between these forces can logically be understood with this Pulson Theory. The nuclear or strong force is mainly seen as the result of the binding force of the LP core of an atomic field on the HP shells of the nucleons.

The weak force, on the other hand, which governs the leptons, derives from the HP shell of the atomic field. The interrelationship of these forces with the electromagnetic force and gravitation can be seen from the description of these forces earlier in this theory.

It can be shown that the pressure deformation within the shell of a primary body does not decline uniformly towards the periphery, but instead forms concentric rings of higher and lower polarity. The polarities of these rings decrease with increasing distance from the center. Rings with increased polarity are the preferred orbits of satellites or of debris. They also correspond to the varying quantum states of electrons in the case of atoms.

The particle effect of a photon is due to its electric fields during its manifestation phase, while the wave effect stems from its oscillating vortices, which create wave-like disturbances in the quantum field. Photons may move through space like a jet: sucking in micro-pulsons at the front opening of the leading vortex and pushing them out at the back end of the following vortex. The higher the energy of a photon the faster are the spins and oscillations of its vortices. The sinus wave of propagation may be due to the spin reversal of the photon with each oscillation. 

This would correspond to the idea of a pilot wave in the quantum theory of David Bohm. In the two-slit interference experiment it is possible that not only the waves created in the micro-pulson of the quantum field but also each of the two pulsons of a photon goes through a different slit.

The same principle applies to atomic particles. In addition to a materialized body, these still have pulsons with oscillating pole reversals which create the wave effect. Much of the confusion in quantum theory may come from looking either at the ship or at the waves that it has created but not at both together.

Furthermore, the 'ghostly' instantaneous communication between two entangled photons observed in quantum experiments would be due to polarity changes in the super-field in which both photons are embedded. The super-field always aims to maintain an overall balanced or neutral position. If one particle or photon changes a quantum state, then it causes another one to acquire the opposite state.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND MYSTERIES

Here I like to comment on a few recent developments and remaining mysteries.

The cartwheel-like rotation of galaxies is commonly assumed to be due to missing or dark matter. Only about 10% of the required matter has yet been found. However, according to the Pulson Theory this rigid rotation is due to the rotation of the galactic super-field initiated by the galactic twin-vortices. Expressed in common language, this super-field is at the etheric level. The rotation of this etheric super-field sweeps the stars and matter along at or near the same velocity.

Dark matter” discovered due to lensing may be assumed to be etheric matter. Observations show that orbiting satellites have been dragged along by the field of the Earth. Conventionally this is seen as a confirmation of Relativity Theory but according to the Pulson Theory it would be due to the spinning etheric twin-vortices of the planet. Relativity Theory only is in conflict with a rigid ether, not with a “fluid” ether as proposed in this Pulson Theory. Etheric fields can exist without the presence of embedded matter.

Black holes are believed to be due to gravitational collapse of a large body. The observed reason for this belief is the high speed with which matter and stars circle a black hole, and, of course, that they emit no light. However, according to the Pulson Theory black holes may be very strong centripetal etheric vortices. We may imagine a gigantic cosmic cyclone at the center of out galaxy that drags all matter along in an inward moving spiral. Smaller black holes are like cosmic tornados.

According to the Pulson Theory the universe and each galaxy consists of equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Stars and solar systems in the galactic shell may have antimatter in their core. Matter-antimatter distribution is reversed in the galactic core. A large antimatter cloud discovered near the galactic center is in agreement with this prediction.

Such clouds would be ejected from galactic super-vortices. Gamma rays resulting from mater-antimatter reactions have also been detected from across the center of our galaxy. The numerous unidentified gamma ray sources within our galaxy may indicate areas of matter-antimatter interaction possibly due to earliest star formation.

According to currently accepted theory all the energy in the sun is produced by nuclear fusion. However, not enough neutrinos can be detected to support this theory. This may indicate a different or additional source of energy production in the sun based on matter-antimatter reactions in the middle-field.

Recent observations show that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Therefore most of the energy in the universe is assumed to be dark energy with anti-gravity properties. This could be an indication of an inflow of a higher-dimensional energy into the physical universe that counteracts gravity.

However, there is another possibility. Halton Arp and others have found high-redshift quasars that are physically connected to low-redshift galaxies. This contradicts the standard explanation for the cause of astronomical redshift being always due to receding stellar objects; also the quantized distribution of redshifts confirms this.

An alternative explanation is that redshift is a function of space-density and polarity. This means atoms in an etheric field of high space-density and strong polarity show a high redshift. Accordingly, the universe may not expand at all but be composed of regions with different etheric space-density and strong polarities. That there is something wrong with the standard model of astrophysics is now obvious from the pictures of Hubble. No matter if objects are close-by or billions of light-years away, they are always sharp as if there was no interaction between distant light and matter.

 Neutron stars are assumed to be the remnants of supernova explosions, resulting from a gravitational collapse. However, this theory has now been questioned because neutron stars can only be detected in about 10% of supernovas. According to the Pulson Theory a supernova results from an internal matter-antimatter explosion when the core reacts with the shell. This may happen when for some reason the super-field of the star departs prematurely. Commonly, however, the super-field de-manifests very slowly during the aging process of a stellar body. This leads to a controlled heat-producing reaction between core and shell, so that in the end only a thin shell may remain with a more or less hollow interior.

Geometric Astronomical Patterns are increasingly being discovered, such as a red square in the Milky Way that has been described as an hour-glass shaped cloud of gas and dust called a bipolar nebula, and the cross shape in the image as two cone shapes placed tip to tip. This may be interpreted as the outlines of a stellar twin-pulson. A similar configuration can be seen in a red rectangle nebula, and a hexagon appeared on Saturn’s north pole. Similar geometric shapes are being formed when rotating fluids are being vibrated. This suggests that also geometric astronomical shapes may be due to this effect as the field within astronomical vortices is being rotated and vibrated.

Normally the twin-pulsons of our planet manifest and de-manifest by changing polarities, and this leads to periodic reversals of the magnetic poles while maintaining the same spin direction. However both vortices may also completely de-manifest, and re-manifest with opposite spin direction. This would lead within a very short period to a reversal of the spin of the planet itself.

Recent findings show enhanced extinction of existing species and appearance of new species every 62 to 65 million years. The last time this happened about 65 million years ago. The reason for this may be a major pulsation cycle of our solar system every 62-65 million years The de-manifestation phase would lead to the extinction of many species, and the new manifestation phase would promote the appearance of new species.

In a recent surprise discovery it was found that any chemicals dissolved in water draw closer together and form clusters when the solution is further diluted. The explanation is that water, as a polar medium, is able to bind pulson fields of a lower space-density. In pure water these fields form short-lived clusters or domains of water molecules. In a concentrated solution the polarity forces of these fields are fully compensated and, therefore, have little impact on the movement of molecules or ions. However, in strongly diluted solutions these fields have free polarities, which attract dissolved particles.

A similar mechanism is also the basis for the 'memory of water' as shown by Benveniste in 1988 (Nature). Benveniste found that a solution that once contained antibodies or histamine still activated white blood cells. He claimed that this was due to ghostly imprints in the water structure where the antibodies had been. These imprints may be understood as pulson fields of specific structure and space-density. More recently these experiments have been confirmed by Madeleine Ennis (Inflammation Research, vol 53, p 181), who admits that she is unable to explain the results.

The same principle is the basis of homeopathy. Here the less dense fields of natural substances are separated from their material counterparts. The more diluted the solution becomes, the stronger are the polarity forces in these liberated fields and the stronger is their potential healing effect. It may be noted that such effects seem to exist only with natural substances and not with synthesized analogs.

The subjective time of a body depends mainly on the oscillating frequency of its twin-pulson, which in turn is influenced by energy changes in the micro-pulsons that form its body. Objective time is determined by the oscillation frequencies of the super-pulsons of the system, and by the spins of their manifested bodies, which for us are those of our galaxy, sun and planet.

We may speculate that during the phase of manifestation and pre-materialization time (or subjective time) has the opposite direction than during materialization and demanifestation. This may cause distortions of time in a manifesting etheric vortex with strong uncompensated polarities. Our normal time goes forward, while in a manifesting vortex it goes backwards. Therefore, depending on the strength of the vortex this may slow down our time or stop time altogether.

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